详细记录  
题名:The impact of oxidative stress on islet transplantation and monitoring the graft survival by non-invasive imaging.
作者:RAMKUMAR KM; SEKAR TV; BHAKKIYALAKSHMI E; FOYGEL K; RAJAGURU P; BERGER F; PAULMURUGAN R;
来源:Curr Med Chem. 2013;20(9):1127-46. [ IF= 0.00 ] ]
URL :N U L L
日期:20130131
摘要:Islet transplantation is an attractive strategy to treat severe diabetic
conditions in patients suffering from autoimmune derived diabetes, and it has
currently been considered a forefront research arena in diabetes. Major aim of
islet transplantation is to achieve successful insulin independent disease free
survival. The key challenges in transplanted islets are the generation of
reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory
cytokine - (TNFalpha) mediated apoptotic induction, attack by immune cells, and
achieving revascularization with minimal hypoxic microenvironment. Free radicals
and their derivatives are constantly produced in living systems, but at
relatively low level, and in a balanced state. Oxidative stress, which occurs as
a result of an imbalance between the intracellular free radicals production and
the cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms in the transplanted islets, can lead
to cell death. The balance between oxidants and antioxidants in a cell can be
easily disturbed by increase in ROS production or reduction in the level of
cellular antioxidant defensive substances, which can cause many metabolic
complications, including pancreatic beta-cell damage. Antioxidants function as
blockers of radical processes by eliminating harmful ROS produced during normal
cellular metabolism. A complex antioxidant defense mechanism has been developed
by nature in cells to protect the cellular homeostasis. This system mainly
includes antioxidant enzymes, vitamins and minerals. As transplanted islet
survival is crucial for achieving successful therapy, most of these antioxidants
can be used as a supplement to scavenge the local ROS thereby improving the
survival of transplanted islets. Currently, very few techniques have been
routinely used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the survival and
function of islet grafts, especially to confirm the success of treatment, which
includes metabolic parameters such as blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide
levels. These biochemical measurements provide markers at only the late stages of
islet rejection. Use of molecular imaging techniques has the potential for
real-time non-invasive monitoring of the functional status and viability of
transplanted islet grafts in living animals. This review mainly focuses on the
current status of islet transplantations, potential preventive strategies used to
reduce oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in islet grafts, and use of molecular
imaging as a tool to quantitatively evaluate the functional status of the
transplanted islets in living animals.

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