详细记录  
题名:Regulation of insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets.
作者:RORSMAN P; BRAUN M;
来源:Annu Rev Physiol. 2013;75:155-79. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-030212-183754. [ IF= 0.00 ] ]
URL :10.1146/annurev-physiol-030212-183754
日期:20130131
摘要:Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin, the body's only hormone capable of
lowering plasma glucose levels. Impaired or insufficient insulin secretion
results in diabetes mellitus. The beta cell is electrically excitable; in
response to an elevation of glucose, it depolarizes and starts generating action
potentials. The electrophysiology of mouse beta cells and the cell's role in
insulin secretion have been extensively investigated. More recently, similar
studies have been performed on human beta cells. These studies have revealed
numerous and important differences between human and rodent beta cells. Here we
discuss the properties of human pancreatic beta cells: their glucose sensing, the
ion channel complement underlying glucose-induced electrical activity that
culminates in exocytotic release of insulin, the cellular control of exocytosis,
and the modulation of insulin secretion by circulating hormones and locally
released neurotransmitters. Finally, we consider the pathophysiology of insulin
secretion and the interactions between genetics and environmental factors that
may explain the current diabetes epidemic.

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