详细记录  
题名:Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet.
作者:RODRIGUEZ-DIAZ R; MENEGAZ D; CAICEDO A;
来源:J Physiol. 2014 Mar 3. [ IF= 0.00 ] ]
URL :10.1113/jphysiol.2013.269910
日期:20140408
摘要:The pancreatic islet of Langerhans is an endocrine micro-organ that secretes the
hormones insulin and glucagon to prevent life-threatening fluctuations in blood
glucose. The human pancreas contains ~1,000,000 islets that work in a concerted
manner to produce bursts of hormone secretion at 5-minute intervals (Tengholm &
Gylfe, 2009). To generate this secretory pattern, the activity of the
insulin-secreting beta cells must be synchronized within the islet and across
islets. At the same time, the secretory activity of other islet endocrine cells
such as the glucagon-secreting alpha cell, which has opposing effects on glucose
homeostasis, needs to be coordinated with that of the beta cell. As endocrine
cells communicate with each other within the islet they may simultaneously send
signals that adjust blood flow to efficiently deliver islet hormones into the
circulation and eventually to the liver, where they help regulate glucose output
to maintain glucose homeostasis (Conn et al., 1998). Anatomical and functional
defects disrupting these coordinated, rhythmic activities likely diminish the
efficiency of the islet to a point where they likely contribute to the
pathogenesis of diabetes. A loss of pulsatile insulin secretion is indeed
characteristic of patients with type 2 diabetes (Tengholm & Gylfe, 2009).

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