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Mapping functional neural circuits for many behaviors has been almost impossible, so Vogelstein et al. (p. 386, published online 27 March. see the Perspective by O`Leary and Marder) developed a broadly applicable optogenetic method for neuron-behavior mapping and used it to phenotype larval Drosophila and thus developed a reference atlas. As optogenetic experiments become routine in certain fields of neuroscience research, creating even more specialized tools is imperative (see the Perspective by Hayashi). By engineering channelrhodopsin, Wietek et al. (p. 409, published online 27 March) and Berndt et al. (p. 420) created two different light-gated anion channels to block action potential generation during synaptic stimulation or depolarizing current injections. These new tools not only improve understanding of channelrhodopsins but also provide a way to silence cells.
Discovery of Brainwide Neural-Behavioral Maps via Multiscale Unsupervised Structure Learning
Conversion of Channelrhodopsin into a Light-Gated Chloride Channel
Structure-Guided Transformation of Channelrhodopsin into a Light-Activated Chloride Channel
发表日期：Science 25 April 2014